Arugula vs Lettuce

When it comes to choosing leafy greens for your salads or sandwiches, you may want to carefully consider your options. Two popular choices are arugula and lettuce, each bringing unique flavors and nutritional values to your table. The differences between them go beyond taste, as they also possess distinct health benefits and uses in culinary dishes.

Arugula, also known as rocket, is a peppery leafy green with a slightly bitter taste and is often used in Mediterranean cuisine. On the other hand, lettuce, a staple in most salads, has a lighter and more neutral flavor, making it versatile for various recipes. Both greens are low in calories and offer essential vitamins and minerals, contributing positively to your overall health.

To make an informed decision between arugula and lettuce, you should consider factors such as taste preferences, nutritional content, and recipe requirements. By understanding the unique characteristics of each leafy green, you can add variety to your meals and enjoy the benefits they bring to your well-being.

Botanical Overview

When it comes to leafy greens, you may be familiar with various types of lettuce and arugula, also known as rocket. These vegetables are often used in salads and offer various nutritional benefits. Here, we’ll provide a botanical overview of these leafy greens, with a focus on different types of lettuce and arugula.

Arugula (Rocket)

Arugula is a cruciferous vegetable, belonging to the Brassicaceae family, along with other greens like kale and cabbage. It has a distinct peppery flavor and is a popular choice in salads or as a garnish. The leaves are typically small, elongated, and lobed, giving arugula a unique appearance.


Lettuce, on the other hand, belongs to the Asteraceae family and is generally milder in flavor compared to arugula. There are several types of lettuce, including romaine, leaf lettuce, butterhead lettuce, and iceberg lettuce. We’ll look at these varieties in more detail below:

  • Romaine: Romaine lettuce is characterized by its long, dark green leaves and a crunchy texture. It is commonly used in Caesar salads and offers a good amount of vitamins and minerals.
  • Leaf Lettuce: This variety comes in a range of colors, from green to red, and has tender, ruffled leaves. Leaf lettuce is often used in mixed green salads and provides a delicate flavor.
  • Butterhead Lettuce: Butterhead lettuce includes varieties like Boston and Bibb lettuce. The leaves are soft, with a buttery texture and a mild, sweet flavor. Butterhead lettuce is usually enjoyed in salads and sandwiches.
  • Iceberg Lettuce: Known for its crisp texture and pale green color, iceberg lettuce offers more crunch than flavor. While it may be lower in nutrients compared to other greens, it still makes a refreshing addition to various dishes.

In conclusion, both arugula and various types of lettuce provide different textures, flavors, and nutritional profiles. As versatile leafy greens, they each have their own unique place in your diet and can add variety to your meals.

Nutritional Comparison

Vitamins and Minerals

Arugula and lettuce both offer various vitamins and minerals in their nutritional profiles. Here are key nutrients found in both greens:

Vitamin KHighHigh
Vitamin AModerateModerate
Vitamin CModerateLow

As you can see, both arugula and lettuce provide substantial amounts of Vitamin K. Arugula tends to have higher levels of Vitamin C, folate, potassium, and magnesium, but both are low in calcium and iron.


Here is a comparison of the macronutrients in arugula and lettuce:

Dietary FiberModerateLow

Both arugula and lettuce are low in protein, fat, sugar, and carbohydrates. Arugula contains slightly more dietary fiber, making it a slightly better choice for those seeking higher fiber content in their greens.

Calorific Value

Arugula and lettuce are both low in calories, making them ideal choices for individuals looking to incorporate nutrient-dense, low-calorie options into their diet. For reference:

  • Arugula: 25 calories per 100 grams
  • Lettuce: 15 calories per 100 grams

While arugula has slightly more calories compared to lettuce, the difference is negligible, and both greens can be enjoyed without worrying about caloric intake.

Hydration and Water Content

Both arugula and lettuce have high water content, providing hydration in addition to their nutritional value. In fact, the water content in these leafy greens is over 90%:

  • Arugula: 91% water content
  • Lettuce: 95% water content

This high water content makes both arugula and lettuce refreshing and hydrating choices, especially during warm weather or after a workout.

Culinary Uses

Salad Preparations

Arugula and lettuce are both popular salad greens. Arugula, also known as rocket, has a slightly bitter and peppery flavor, which can add a unique taste to salads. Lettuce, on the other hand, has a milder flavor and a buttery texture. These differences in taste can inspire various salad preparations. In a typical salad, you might use:

  • Arugula: Stronger flavored salads with robust ingredients like cheese, citrus fruits, and nuts.
  • Lettuce: Milder salads with a more balanced flavor profile, often paired with fish.

Cooked Applications

Although salads are a common use for both arugula and lettuce, these greens can also be cooked. They can be added to pasta dishes, stir-fries, and soups, providing additional nutrients, flavor, and texture. Here’s how you might include them in your cooked dishes:

  • Arugula: Add at the end of the cooking process to pasta dishes and stir-fries, to maintain its peppery flavor. It can also be mixed into soups for a unique taste.
  • Lettuce: Ideal for wilting in soups or braising in a warm broth for a mild, buttery flavor. It can also be used as a wrap for various fillings.

Texture and Flavor Enhancements

Both arugula and lettuce can add unique textures and flavors to your dishes. To enhance your recipes, consider the following:

ArugulaTender, yet slightly crispSlightly bitter, peppery flavor with a hint of sweetness, which deepens when cooked
Lettuce (Butterhead, Romaine, etc.)Soft and butteryMild flavor with a subtle sweetness

Food Pairings

Understanding the flavors and textures that pair well with arugula and lettuce allows you to create delicious, balanced dishes. Consider these food pairings when using arugula or lettuce:

  • Arugula: It pairs well with strong flavors like aged cheese, citrus fruits, and nuts. It can also balance out the sweetness of fruits such as figs and strawberries.
  • Lettuce: Its mild flavor complements a variety of ingredients, like fish, avocados, tomatoes, and cucumbers. Due to its subtle taste, it can be used as a versatile base for colorful and varied salads.

Health Benefits

Amazing Arugula: 6 Benefits

Dietary Impact

Arugula and lettuce both provide noteworthy dietary benefits for your health. As low-calorie, nutrient-dense greens, they make an excellent addition to your daily meals.

  • Arugula is a nutrient powerhouse, offering antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. Its distinct, peppery taste makes a wonderful base for salads or a flavorful addition to sandwiches.
  • Lettuce is a versatile green with numerous varieties, each offering distinct textures and flavors. Packed with fiber, it aids in digestion and is a perfect choice for weight-conscious diets.

Moreover, both arugula and lettuce are rich in vitamins, including A, C, and K, which provide support to your immune system, bone health, and overall well-being.

Physical Well-being

Incorporating arugula and lettuce into your diet can make a significant impact on your physical health. Below is a list of specific benefits for each:


  • Boosts bone health with its calcium content
  • Improves digestion due to high fiber levels
  • Contains cancer-fighting compounds such as glucosinolates


  • Supports heart health due to the presence of potassium
  • Lowers inflammation through its antioxidants
  • Balances blood sugar levels with its soluble fiber content

Mineral Absorption

Arugula and lettuce do not only provide essential minerals, but they also help your body absorb them effectively. Both greens contain:

MineralArugula (per 100g)Lettuce (per 100g)
Calcium160 mg35 mg
Potassium369 mg263 mg
Magnesium47 mg13 mg
Iron1.46 mg0.86 mg

The minerals mentioned above contribute to various aspects of your health, such as:

  • Calcium for strong bones and teeth
  • Potassium for regulating blood pressure
  • Magnesium for nerve and muscle function
  • Iron for optimal red blood cell production

Incorporating arugula and lettuce into your diet ensures that your body receives these essential minerals, keeping you healthy and energized.

Visual Differences

Leaf Structure

When comparing arugula and lettuce, you’ll notice distinct differences in their leaf structures. Arugula, also known as rocket or rucola, has elongated, lobed leaves with a serrated or jagged edge. On the other hand, lettuce leaves can vary greatly depending on the type. For example:

  • Butterhead: Soft, loose, and rounded leaves that form a loosely packed head
  • Romaine: Long, sturdy leaves with prominent central ribs and a crisp texture
  • Red leaf lettuce: Similar to romaine but with softer, more delicate leaves and a red tinge on the edges

Color Variations

Color plays a significant role in differentiating arugula from lettuce. Arugula leaves are predominantly dark green, while lettuce leaves display a wider range of colors. Here’s a summary of the color variations in lettuce:

Lettuce TypeColor
ButterheadPale green to yellow-green
RomaineDark green with light green center
Red LeafGreen with red or purple-tinged edges
MâcheMedium to dark green

Some greens, such as cress and watercress, have vibrant green leaves, similar to arugula but with a different leaf structure.

Varietal Types

Lettuce offers a larger variety of types than arugula, giving you more options when it comes to their appearance:

  1. Butterhead: Includes Boston and Bibb lettuce, known for their tender, loosely packed heads
  2. Romaine: Characterized by its tall, upright growth and crunchy texture
  3. Red leaf lettuce: Features a loose, open head with a mild flavor
  4. Mâche: Also called lamb’s lettuce or corn salad, has small, smooth, rosette-shaped leaves

Arugula, spinach, and kale, while often grouped with lettuce in the salad green category, have their distinct appearances and are considered separate leafy greens. They are more similar to one another in terms of their dark green color but vary in leaf shape and texture:

  • Arugula: Elongated, lobed leaves with jagged edges, peppery flavor
  • Spinach: Smooth, oval-shaped leaves with rounded tips, sweeter flavor
  • Kale: Large, curly leaves with a sturdy texture, slightly bitter flavor

Consumption Trends

Dishes and Preparation

Arugula and lettuce both play significant roles in a variety of dishes, thanks to their versatility. You will often find them being used in salads, as well as ingredients in sandwiches, wraps, and even pizzas. Let’s take a closer look at how they’re commonly prepared and used.

  • Arugula: With its peppery, bold flavor, arugula adds a distinct taste to your dishes. It’s a popular choice for adults, particularly among men and women who prefer a more flavorful green. Common ways to enjoy arugula include incorporating it into a mixed salad, topping a pizza, or adding it to sandwiches and wraps.
  • Lettuce: Generally milder in taste, lettuce is a popular choice for individuals seeking a more neutral flavor. It’s commonly used in salads, sandwiches, and wraps due to its crisp texture. The various types of lettuce – iceberg, romaine, and leaf – can all be used interchangeably depending on your preference.

Dietary Preferences

Both arugula and lettuce have their own advantages when it comes to catering to different dietary preferences. For those desiring a vitamin-rich diet, arugula is the better choice, while lettuce’s mild flavor appeals to a wider audience.

Dietary PreferenceArugulaLettuce
Vitamin-rich dietPreferred
Mild flavorMore popular choice

In summary, when deciding between arugula and lettuce for your next meal, consider the dishes you are preparing and your dietary preferences. Remember that both greens offer varying flavors and benefits, making them excellent options for different occasions and taste preferences.

Arugula vs Lettuce + Recipe

Arugula Salad with Lemon Vinaigrette
5 from 1 vote
Prep Time 10 minutes
Cook Time 5 minutes
Total Time 15 minutes
Course Salad
Cuisine American
Servings 4
Calories 188 kcal


  • 4 cups fresh arugula
  • 1/4 cup cherry tomatoes halved
  • 1/4 cup thinly sliced red onion
  • 1/4 cup crumbled feta cheese
  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • Salt and pepper to taste


  • In a large bowl, combine the arugula, cherry tomatoes, red onion, and feta cheese.
  • In a small bowl, whisk together the olive oil, lemon juice, honey, salt, and pepper to make the vinaigrette.
  • Drizzle the vinaigrette over the salad and toss to coat evenly.
  • Serve immediately and enjoy!


This refreshing and flavorful arugula salad makes a great side dish or light meal.


Calories: 188kcal
Keyword arugula vs lettuce
Tried this recipe?Let us know how it was!

Frequently Asked Questions

What distinguishes the taste of arugula from that of lettuce?

Arugula has a strong, peppery flavor, which can be quite distinctive compared to the mild, crunchy taste of lettuce. The intensity of arugula’s flavor can vary depending on its age, with younger leaves being milder and older leaves tending to be more robust in flavor.

How do the nutritional values of arugula and lettuce compare?

Arugula is generally more nutritionally dense than lettuce. It is an excellent source of vitamins A, C, and K, while also containing higher levels of calcium, iron, and potassium than your average lettuce. On the other hand, lettuce, especially iceberg, is lower in overall nutrients but helps to hydrate the body due to its high water content.

Can arugula be used interchangeably with lettuce in salads?

Yes, arugula can be used interchangeably with lettuce in salads. However, be mindful of arugula’s bold, peppery flavor while using it with other ingredients, as it might not complement every mixture. You can also combine arugula with other greens, like lettuce or spinach, for a varied taste and texture.

What are the calorie differences between arugula and lettuce?

Both arugula and lettuce are low-calorie foods, making them suitable for weight management and healthy diets. Arugula contains slightly more calories than most types of lettuce, but the difference is negligible. For example, one cup of arugula provides approximately 5 calories, while one cup of iceberg lettuce contains about 8 calories.

Which one provides more health benefits: arugula or iceberg lettuce?

Arugula is nutritionally superior to iceberg lettuce. While both are low in calories, arugula contains more vitamins and minerals. On the other hand, iceberg lettuce is mostly composed of water and offers minimal nutritional value. If your goal is maximizing nutrients, opt for arugula or other dark, leafy greens like spinach or kale.

Among salad greens, which varieties are considered the most nutritious?

Several salad greens stand out when it comes to nutritional value. In addition to arugula, spinach, kale, and Swiss chard are some of the most nutrient-dense options. These greens are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that promote overall health. Including a variety of these dark, leafy greens in your diet can help optimize nutritional benefits.

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Cassie brings decades of experience to the Kitchen Community. She is a noted chef and avid gardener. Her new book "Healthy Eating Through the Garden" will be released shortly. When not writing or speaking about food and gardens Cassie can be found puttering around farmer's markets and greenhouses looking for the next great idea.
Cassie Marshall
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