Pecorino Romano vs Parmesan

When exploring the landscape of Italian cheeses, two names often rise to the forefront: Pecorino Romano and Parmesan.

Both are highly esteemed for their unique flavors and versatility in the culinary world.

Pecorino Romano is a hard, salty cheese made from sheep’s milk, traditionally produced in the Lazio region of Italy.

Its robust flavor profile is well-suited for grating over dishes where a bolder taste is desired.

Two blocks of cheese sit side by side, one labeled "Pecorino Romano" and the other "Parmesan." The textures and colors of the cheeses are distinct

In contrast, Parmesan, or Parmigiano Reggiano, hails from the Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, and Bologna areas of Italy and is crafted from cow’s milk.

It is known for its granular texture and slightly nutty, less pungent taste.

Parmesan is typically aged longer than Pecorino Romano, which contributes to its complex flavor that intensifies with time.

Understanding Pecorino Romano and Parmesan

When you explore the world of Italian cheeses, you’ll find Pecorino Romano and Parmesan to be two prominent varieties, each with its distinct origin, history, and characteristics that set them apart.

Origin and History

Pecorino Romano is one of Italy’s oldest cheeses with a heritage dating back to around 300 BC.

Its production was originally centered in the region of Lazio, with some areas of Sardinia also renowned for crafting this cheese.

Pecorino Romano is a hard cheese made from sheep’s milk and is most identified with sharp and salty flavors that intensify with aging.

In contrast, Parmesan, or Parmigiano-Reggiano, originated during the 13th century in the area of Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy.

Unlike Pecorino Romano, Parmesan is crafted from cow’s milk. The aging process for Parmesan cheese involves a minimum of 12 months, which imparts it a granular texture and a subtle nutty taste, less sharp than Pecorino but equally complex.

Cheese Varieties and Their Characteristics

Pecorino Romano is typically more moist than Parmesan, appearing whiter with a somewhat softer texture.

Apart from its strong, salty flavor profile, it’s also characterized by a grassy note, courtesy of the sheep’s milk. Pecorino Romano is known for a faster aging process, requiring at least 8 months to mature.

  • Color: Straw-white
  • Texture: Firm but slightly softer than Parmesan
  • Flavors: Sharp, tangy, salty
  • Aging time: Minimum of 8 months

Conversely, Parmesan cheese—known scientifically as Parmigiano-Reggiano—is known for its golden hue, a result of the longer aging process.

It has a hard and granular texture that becomes crunchier with age, and it boasts flavors that are rich, nutty, and sometimes carry a hint of caramel, especially in super-aged variants.

  • Color: Golden
  • Texture: Very hard and dry
  • Flavors: Nutty, with possible caramel undertones
  • Aging time: Minimum of 12 months

Production and Aging Process

Milk being heated, curdled, and pressed into molds. Cheese wheels aging in a cool, dark cellar. Mold being brushed off periodically

In exploring the distinct characteristics of Pecorino Romano and Parmesan, you’ll find that the milk source, cheese-making techniques, and aging time play pivotal roles in defining their unique flavors and textures.

Milk Sources and Their Influence

Pecorino Romano

  • Milk Source: Sheep’s milk
  • Flavor Impact: Yields a sharp, tangy flavor profile with a hint of grassiness

Parmesan (Parmigiano-Reggiano)

  • Milk Source: Cow’s milk
  • Flavor Impact: Results in a rich, nutty flavor, less tangy than Pecorino

Both cheeses boast a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status, ensuring that traditional methods and particular regions are used for their production.

Cheese Making Techniques

For Pecorino Romano:

  1. The process begins with sheep’s milk.
  2. Rennet is added for coagulation.
  3. The curds are then pressed and salted.

For Parmesan:

  1. Starts with partly skimmed cow’s milk.
  2. Uses rennet and sometimes a fermentation agent.
  3. Curds are broken down to rice-size granules before pressing and salting.

Specialized techniques adhering to the PDO standards are crucial for both cheeses, defining their authenticity.

Aging Time and Its Effects

Aging Period:

  • Pecorino Romano: Typically aged for a minimum of 8 months.
  • Parmesan: Requires aging for at least 12 months, often extending up to 36 months for premium grades.

Flavor and Texture Evolution:

  • With age, Pecorino Romano becomes more robust and salty.
  • Parmesan develops a deeper, more complex nutty flavor with potential caramel nuances in super-aged varieties.

The duration of the aging process not only intensifies the flavors but also affects the hardness and crumbliness of the cheese.

Culinary Uses

Pecorino Romano and Parmesan both play pivotal roles in Italian cuisine, enhancing your cooking with their deep flavor profiles and versatile applications.

Whether you’re looking to add a burst of umami to pasta dishes or seeking the perfect finish to a risotto, understanding the culinary uses of these hard cheeses will elevate your recipes.

Traditional Pairings and Dishes

In traditional Italian cooking, your choice of cheese can transform a simple meal into an authentic culinary experience.

  • Pasta: Parmesan is a staple in dishes like Chicken Parmesan and Pesto, while Pecorino Romano is often the cheese of choice in Cacio e Pepe.
  • Salads: Shave Parmesan over a Caesar salad for a nutty twist or incorporate Pecorino into a salad to introduce a bold, salty flavor.
  • Soups: Finish your soups with finely grated Parmesan to create a rich umami depth. Pecorino can provide a sharper tang, aligning well with hearty vegetable soups.

Pairing: When choosing wines or accompaniments, Parmesan pairs beautifully with robust reds, while Pecorino’s stronger taste complements off-dry whites.

Cheese in Modern Cuisine

Your exploration of these cheeses in contemporary recipes will showcase their adaptability in a range of dishes.

  • Risotto: Stir Parmesan into your risotto for a creamy, melt-in-the-mouth texture with a subtle, nutty taste.
  • Pizza: Freshly grated, these cheeses add a savory punch to pizza toppings. Pecorino’s stronger flavor means you can use less to achieve the desired taste.
  • Gratins: Use Parmesan in gratins for a golden, crispy crust that doesn’t overpower the flavors of the main ingredients.

Note: The drier texture of Parmesan makes it ideal for longer cooking times, while Pecorino’s softer nature suits quick-melting applications.

Sensory Profiles and Nutritional Value

A table displays two types of cheese with labels and nutritional information. A sensory profile chart shows flavor and texture differences

The cheeses Pecorino Romano and Parmesan distinguish themselves through their unique sensory characteristics and nutritional values, each offering a distinct experience in both flavor and health benefits.

Flavor and Texture Comparison

Pecorino Romano:

  • Flavor: You’ll find it sharper and saltier, with a tangy profile.
  • Texture: It’s slightly soft, yet can still be crumbly, making it suitable for grating.

Parmesan (Parmigiano-Reggiano):

  • Flavor: It presents a rich, nutty flavor with hints of umami that deepens with age, sometimes even developing a taste that subtly reminds of caramel.
  • Texture: This cheese is harder, very crumbly, and boasts a dry rind. It grates well, producing fluffy piles of cheese perfect for topping dishes.

Health Benefits and Dietary Considerations

Pecorino Romano:

  • Calcium: Supplies about 200 milligrams per ounce, a significant source for your dietary needs.
  • Protein and Fat: Its sheep’s milk origin means it’s higher in both protein and fat compared to Parmesan.


  • Nutritional Value: Lower in calories and higher in certain micronutrients, it can be a part of a balanced diet.
  • Lactose Intolerance: Aged Parmesan is very low in lactose, which is advantageous if you have lactose intolerance.

Both Cheeses:

  • Are rich in essential minerals and offer a good amount of calcium.
  • Contain sodium, a consideration for those monitoring their intake.
  • Region of Origin: Pecorino Romano originates from Tuscany and Lazio, made from sheep’s milk. Parmigiano Reggiano, or Parmesan, hails from the Emilia-Romagna region and is produced using cow’s milk. These regions impart unique terroir to the cheeses.
  • Texture: If you prefer a creamier cheese with a somewhat crumbly texture, go for Pecorino Romano.
  • In contrast, Parmesan is known for its more granular texture and dry, hard nature which lends it to be an excellent grating cheese.
  • Flavor Profile: The flavor of Pecorino is typically more pungent and salty, offering a sharp tanginess. On the other hand, Parmesan presents a nutty, less salty taste that can also carry a hint of caramel, especially when aged.
  • Savoriness: Your preference for saltiness may lead you to Pecorino Romano, as it tends to be saltier than Parmesan.
  • Cheese Boards: A cheese board might benefit from the variety of both—an assertive Pecorino Romano and a milder, nuttier Parmesan.
  • Cooking: Consider the dish you are preparing.
  • Pecorino Siciliano, a variant from Sicily, can offer a bolder taste in cooked dishes. Meanwhile, Parmesan is more subtle and often used for a gentler background flavor with a pleasant mouthfeel.
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Cassie brings decades of experience to the Kitchen Community. She is a noted chef and avid gardener. Her new book "Healthy Eating Through the Garden" will be released shortly. When not writing or speaking about food and gardens Cassie can be found puttering around farmer's markets and greenhouses looking for the next great idea.
Cassie Marshall
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