Rose Water in Lebanese Cuisine

Rose water is an ingrained component of Lebanese cuisine, its application deeply rooted in the tradition of culinary arts across the country.

As you explore the fragrant world of Lebanese gastronomy, you’ll find rose water recurrently used as a key ingredient to impart a delicate, floral aroma that distinguishes many dishes.

Its inclusion is not merely for an olfactory pleasure but serves a greater purpose in the craft of balancing and enhancing flavors within the cuisine’s sophisticated taste profiles.

A glass bottle of fragrant rose water sits on a marble countertop, surrounded by fresh rose petals and a bowl of baklava

In savory creations as well as sweets, your palate is likely to encounter the subtle influence of rose water.

Lebanese chefs and home cooks alike employ this distilled essence to bring forth a unique sensory dimension in an array of recipes.

From refreshing beverages like Jallab, adorned with nuts and often enjoyed over ice, to indulgent desserts such as Mahalabia, a creamy pudding that embraces the fragrant syrup.

Your understanding of Lebanese cuisine may deepen as you consider the multifaceted uses of rose water in both traditional and contemporary dishes.

It’s a testament to the culinary heritage that continues to celebrate the natural bounty and aromatic nuances that define the essence of Lebanese food culture.

The practice of incorporating rose water in cooking reflects a storied past and signifies the region’s dedication to creating dishes that resonate with harmony in flavors and aromas.

History and Tradition

In Lebanese cuisine, your experience with rose water starts with a legacy deeply rooted in your cultural heritage.

Rose water, a distillation from rose petals, has been treasured in Lebanon for its culinary virtues and in Middle Eastern traditions since ancient times.

Its integration into Lebanese dishes is more than a matter of taste; it’s a ritual that honors the history and the botanical wealth of the region.

You’ll find that in Lebanon, rose water is most commonly used in desserts such as ma’amoul (date or nut-filled pastries), mouhalabieh (milk pudding), and as a flavor enhancer in beverages.

This tradition can be seen as a continuation of ancient practices of using floral scents to signify both hospitality and luxury.

Cultural Significance:

  • Ancient Middle Eastern Influence: Rose water’s journey into Lebanese recipes begins with ancient trade routes and has been sustained over centuries through both domestic production and international exchange.
  • Culinary Heritage: It’s a staple in Lebanese and broader Middle Eastern kitchens; a splash transforms the ordinary to extraordinary, reflecting the region’s affinity for aromatic food.

Consider the historical timeline where your use of rose water in Lebanon is not just a culinary choice but a homage to the ancestors who valued the rose for both its beauty and practical uses.

Recall the lavish gardens of ancient Middle East, where the Damask rose – one of the oldest rose varieties – was cultivated and its essence, captured in the form of rose water, began to permeate culinary traditions.

Rose Water Production

Rose water production is a meticulous process that involves extracting the essence of rose petals.

This can be performed using traditional methods that have been passed down through generations, or by employing modern techniques that utilize advanced machinery.

Traditional Distillation Process

In traditional distillation, your main component is the alembic, a kind of distillation apparatus. Here’s what you generally need to know:

  1. Preparation: First, fresh rose petals are gathered, ensuring that they are free from impurities.
  2. Packing: The petals are then packed into the alembic.
  3. Heating: The alembic is heated at a controlled temperature to cause the petals to release their oils.
  4. Condensation: The vaporized compounds ascend to the alembic’s cap and pass through a cooling system to condense back into a liquid form.
  5. Collection: The condensed liquid, which now contains rose oil and water, is collected. The oil, being lighter, separates from the water, leaving behind the fragrant rose water.

This method of steam distillation is valued for preserving the natural properties of rose essence.

Modern Techniques

Modern techniques involve more sophisticated equipment that streamlines production:

  • Advanced Distillation Units: These typically feature stainless steel construction and precise temperature controls to optimize the extraction and separation of rose essence.
  • Continuous Operation: Unlike traditional batch distillation, modern units can operate continuously, significantly increasing efficiency.
  • Quality Control: With modern equipment, you can monitor the quality of rose water throughout the process, ensuring consistent purity and fragrance levels.
  • Sustainability: Modern production often focuses on minimizing waste and energy consumption, reflecting an increased awareness of environmental impacts.

Role in Lebanese Cuisine

In Lebanese cuisine, you’ll find that rose water is not simply a flavoring additive; it’s an essential component of the culinary identity.

As a transparent and sweetly aromatic distillation, it’s carefully used in many Lebanese recipes to provide a subtle floral note that uniquely defines certain dishes.

Culinary Uses:

  • Desserts: Rose water is a star in Lebanese sweets like baklava, mouhalabieh, and ma’amoul, lending them a signature fragrance.
  • Pastries: You might come across it enhancing the dough or filling of various pastries.
  • Beverages: It’s also a common flavoring in refreshing drinks and can be part of a soothing herbal tea.

Your approach to using rose water in the Lebanese kitchen should be one of moderation.

A little goes a long way, so you should add it drop by drop to strike the right balance and avoid overpowering your dish.

Incorporating rose water into your cooking links you to Lebanese culinary traditions.

It’s not just about the aroma; it also plays a role in the nostalgia and communal memories it evokes, reminiscent of the country’s blooming rose gardens.

As you become more familiar with Lebanese food, you’ll recognize that rose water is more than an ingredient—it’s a tribute to a legacy of flavor that has transcended generations.

Embrace its use with respect for the traditions it carries, and enjoy the depth it adds to your culinary creations.

Signature Lebanese Dishes with Rose Water

Rose water imparts a fragrant aroma and a subtle floral flavor that is essential to many Lebanese dishes.

It is especially prominent in desserts and beverages, and occasionally featured in savory recipes, enhancing the sensory experience of traditional Lebanese cuisine.

Desserts and Pastries

In the realm of Lebanese sweets, rose water is a star ingredient. Its harmonious blend with sugar and other flavors creates a unique profile:

  • Baklava: This iconic dessert pairs rose water syrup with layers of thin phyllo dough and a hearty mix of nuts.
  • Maamoul: These are shortbread pastries filled with dates or nuts, subtly scented with rose water to give a distinct taste.
  • Mahalabia: A delicate milk pudding that leverages the gentle notes of rose water to balance its sweetness.

Beverages and Refreshing Drinks

Rose water infuses refreshing beverages with an unmistakable scent that elevates your drinking experience:

  • Flavorful lemonades with a hint of rose water offer a refreshing and aromatic twist.
  • Traditional teas sometimes incorporate rose water to add a fragrant dimension.

Savory Dishes

Although less common, rose water does find its way into savory Lebanese food, notably in:

  • Certain rice dishes where it provides a nuanced aroma, enriching the complexity of flavors without overwhelming the palate.

Pairing and Cooking Techniques

Rose water is being poured into a pot of simmering meat and rice, adding a fragrant aroma to the Lebanese dish

When you incorporate rose water into Lebanese dishes, you’re adding a subtle, floral aroma that elevates the dish to a new level of sensory experience.

Careful pairing and the right cooking techniques can amplify this delicate floral essence into a symphony of flavors.

Dessert Syrups

In desserts, rose water is often used to create syrups that drench pastries or infuse creams.

To make a rose water syrup, simply combine sugar and water in a 1:1 ratio, bring to a gentle simmer, and then stir in a teaspoon of rose water per cup of syrup once cooled.

This syrup can be drizzled over:

  • Baklava: This adds complexity and accentuates the nutty fillings.
  • Rice Pudding: A small amount of syrup infuses a comforting dessert with a fragrant twist.

Savory Dish Aromatics

For savory dishes, rose water should be added toward the end of cooking to preserve its fragrance.

It is often used in conjunction with orange blossom water to create a nuanced aroma without overpowering the dish.

Here’s how you can integrate rose water into savory cooking:

  • Meat Dishes: A splash of rose water can give lamb or chicken a refreshing edge.
  • Rice Entrées: Include rose water in your rice cooking liquid for a floral lift, aligning well with herbs and nuts often found in Lebanese rice dishes.

Culinary Benefits and Sensory Experience

When you bring rose water into your kitchen, you’re not just adding a condiment; you’re introducing a heritage that enhances your culinary creations.

In Lebanese cuisine, rose water adds a symphony of flavors, transforming ordinary dishes into aromatic classics.

  • Flavor: It imbues a subtle, yet distinct floral note that can elevate the simplest of sweets or the most elaborate pastries.
  • Aroma: The scent of rose water is unmistakably luxurious, evoking a sense of nostalgia and transporting you to a sensory journey through Lebanese patrimony.

The distillation process of rose water ensures that the essence of the rose is captured in its most potent form.

This precious liquid plays a crucial role in the sensory experience of dining, as it combines with other ingredients to create a multi-sensory feast.

Culinary Uses:

  • Desserts: Incorporate rose water into baklava or milk puddings for an exquisite twist.
  • Beverages: A dash in lemonades or teas offers a refreshing, floral zest.
  • Savory Dishes: Enhance marinades and sauces to add an unexpected and delightful layer of complexity.

Below is a snapshot of how rose water harmonizes with various components in Lebanese dishes:

Dish TypeRose Water Contribution
PastriesEnriches with a floral sweetness
BeveragesInfuses with a refreshing twist
SavoriesComplements with aromatic subtlety

As you cook with rose water, the intertwined scents and tastes work together, ensuring that each bite is not just nourishment but an experience—a true delight for the senses.

Use it judiciously, and you’ll find that rose water is indeed a transformative ingredient.

Rose Water in Beverages

Rose water is an integral component in Lebanese beverages, imparting a floral essence that transforms traditional drinks into refreshing delights.

Traditional Lebanese Drinks

Jallab is a quintessential Lebanese drink, where rose water plays a starring role.

To prepare Jallab, you mix water, date molasses, and rose water in a tall glass.

Ice is added for a cool effect, and the beverage is often garnished with toasted pine nuts or slivered almonds. Some prefer to add honey, but the intrinsic sweetness of the rose water often suffices to create a drink that’s both traditional and refreshingly sophisticated.

Lebanese lemonade is another classic, where lemon juice is brightened with rose water.

The typical preparation involves a simple syrup, made from sugar and water, to which lemon juice and rose water are added.

This creates a drink that is at once tart, sweet, and floral, making it a favorite during the hot summer months.

Modern Beverage Applications

In modern Lebanese cuisine, rose water has found its way into an array of contemporary beverages beyond the classics.

For instance, a popular twist is rose-flavored lassi, a yoghurt-based drink, where the rose water complements the tang of the yoghurt perfectly.

Beverages like iced teas and cocktails are now also seeing the inclusion of rose water, adding a Lebanese touch to what might otherwise be familiar drinks.

Chefs and mixologists alike use rose water for its ability to add complexity and an air of sophistication, turning a simple refreshment into something more indulgent and exotic.

Cultural Significance of Rose Water

A glass bottle of rose water sits on a kitchen counter surrounded by fresh herbs, spices, and traditional Lebanese cooking utensils

In Lebanese cuisine, rose water stands as a testament to your rich cultural and culinary heritage.

With its origins steeped in Middle Eastern traditions, rose water infuses your dishes with not just flavor, but also historical significance.

As you explore this culinary landscape, you’ll find that rose water is not only a cherished ingredient; it’s a bridge to your past.

In wedding celebrations, rose water is often sprinkled to symbolize purity and love, reflecting its deep-rooted place in your social rituals.

Its use in such ceremonies accentuates the union with a fragrance that is as enduring as the culture itself.

Your culinary heritage, particularly in Lebanese dishes, boasts of rose water’s versatility:

  • Sweet Delights: Signature sweets like baklava and ma’amoul are often fragranced with rose water, offering an aromatic pleasure that resonates with familial celebrations.
  • Beverages: A splash of rose water can transform a simple drink into a traditional refreshment.
  • Savory Dishes: It has a subtle presence in savory dishes, complementing spices and bringing a floral note to the palate.

As you partake in Middle Eastern dishes, you partake in a narrative of the cultural fabric woven by generations long gone.

In every drop of rose water, there is an echo of tradition, which is why it maintains its timeless place in your culinary practice.

Recipes and Usage

Rose water is a celebrated ingredient in Lebanese cuisine, interwoven across various recipes to infuse dishes with a floral hint. Its versatility is showcased in both sweet and savory dishes, complementing an array of flavors.

Desserts and Pastries

Lebanese desserts often feature rose water, transforming simple sweets into aromatic delicacies.

For instance, Mahalabia, a milk pudding, attains its signature flavor from a rose water-scented syrup.

Expect a prep time of roughly 10 minutes with a total time of 20 minutes before refrigeration.

  • Servings: 4-6
  • Calories: Approximately 150-200 per serving

Another beloved treat is the buttery Semolina Coconut Cake, drenched in a rose water infused syrup, intensifying the cake’s moisture and taste.

Savory Dishes

Moving towards savory dishes, you’ll find rose water subtly enhancing the meat’s profile in stews or marinated dishes.

Use it sparingly to ensure the floral notes do not overpower the essential earthiness of the meats.


In sweets, rose water is a staple in Jallab, a refreshing drink made with date molasses, water, and a touch of rose water, creating a blend of flavors that’s both rich and refreshing. Garnish with nuts to add a crunch.

To incorporate rose water in your kitchen, follow these steps:

  1. Balance Flavors: Start with a small quantity, adding more to suit your taste.
  2. Dessert Syrups: Mix it into syrups for a subtle aroma in an array of desserts.
  3. Beverages: Enhance drinks with a splash for a distinctive, exotic twist.

With rose water, you impart a quintessential Lebanese essence to your culinary creations, elevating them with its delicate floral notes.

Nutritional Information

A bottle of rose water surrounded by traditional Lebanese ingredients like chickpeas, mint, and pomegranate seeds. The label displays nutritional information

When incorporating rose water into your Lebanese dishes, you are adding an element that is low in calories, yet rich in tradition. Rose water is not a significant source of nutrients, as its primary use in cuisine is for its aroma and flavor rather than its nutritional content.

Nutritional Overview:

  • Calories: Minimal; rose water contains only traces of calories.
  • Contribution to Food: Provides a signature essence to dishes without adding caloric weight.

Refreshment Aspect:

  • Drinks: Rose water-infused beverages are considered refreshing, particularly in hot climates, and carry negligible calories.
  • Food Combinations: When added to foods, the focus is on the flavor profile rather than nutritional enhancement.

To understand its minor role in the overall nutritional profile of a dish, explore the components of a recipe one might typically add rose water to, like puddings or baked goods. Here, other ingredients will largely determine the dish’s caloric and nutritional content.

Incorporating Rose Water into the Diet

Rose water, a fragrant liquid made from distilled rose petals, has a long-standing role in Lebanese cuisine. Its unique aroma contributes to the rich culinary traditions of the region.

When you choose to bring rose water into your diet, consider its potent flavor and aroma. A small quantity can significantly impact the taste of your dish.

Culinary Uses

  • In cooking, a few drops of rose water can transform a simple dish into a flavorful delicacy.
  • You can add it to marinades or sauces to complement and enhance the savory taste of meats.
  • For a subtle floral note, infuse rose water into rice or grain dishes. It offers a hint of elegance and pairs particularly well with cardamom or cinnamon.


  • Rose water is not limited to food; it also serves as a delightful addition to beverages.
  • To create a refreshing rose water lemonade, simply mix rose water with fresh lemon juice, water, and a sweetener of your choice.
  • It can also be a unique twist in cocktails, adding both a luxurious scent and an intriguing flavor profile.

Quick Tips:

  • Start with a small amount; rose water is potent.
  • Pair with ingredients like pomegranate, mint, or citrus to enhance the refreshing quality.

Rose Water in Middle Eastern Cuisine

Rose water is a staple in Middle Eastern cuisine, where your food experience is often adorned with its scent and flavor. It is extracted through steam distillation of rose petals and owes its popularity to the versatility and delicateness it brings to various dishes.

In the realm of Middle Eastern desserts, you will often find rose water adding a floral note that complements the sweetness.

Its use is prevalent in confections such as baklava, Turkish delight, and milk puddings like muhalabiya.

When you taste these desserts, the subtle hint of rose water might remind you of aromatic Middle Eastern gardens.

A glance at a traditional Middle Eastern table and you’re likely to spot savory dishes that also benefit from this ingredient.

It pairs exquisitely with rice, lending a slight but recognizable fragrance to dishes like pilafs and biryani.

Here’s how rose water can be incorporated in your cooking:

  • Desserts: Add a teaspoon to sweet syrups or batters
  • Rice Dishes: Sprinkle over rice before serving
  • Drinks: Infuse into teas or cocktails for an aromatic twist

Global Influence and Variations

A table adorned with Lebanese dishes, featuring rose water-infused delicacies, surrounded by diverse cultural symbols

Rose water is not only a cherished flavor in Lebanese cuisine but has permeated culinary traditions worldwide, evolving distinctively across regions.

Rose Water Across Middle Eastern Countries

Turkey: In Turkey, rose water adds a subtle fragrance to traditional sweets such as Turkish delight and baklava. It’s also used in ceremonies like weddings, providing both a flavor and a touch of cultural symbolism.

Iran: Your Persian dishes would not be complete without the scent of rose water.

It’s essential in sweets like faloodeh, a frozen treat, and the celebratory dish called sholezard, a saffron rice pudding.

Egypt: The use of rose water in Egypt is prominent in their version of milk pudding, known as mehalabeya, enhancing the dessert with its delicate aroma.

Beyond the Middle East

Rose water’s influence extends well beyond the Middle Eastern region.

While not as commonly integrated into Western cuisine, rose water has indeed found a niche in specialty food markets and is utilized by chefs and gourmets globally for an exotic touch in both savory and dessert applications.

Its application has been noted in everything from French madeleines infused with rose to Indian lassis that refresh the palate.

Your encounter with these variations of rose water utilization signifies a shared global appreciation for its capacity to transform the sensory profile of a wide array of dishes.

Rose Water as Perfume and in Cosmetics

A clear glass bottle of rose water sits next to a bowl of fresh rose petals. A small dish of rose water is being used in the preparation of a traditional Lebanese dish

Your experience with rose water in the realm of perfumes and cosmetics bridges the ancient traditions with modern beauty practices.

Rose water is revered for its fragrant qualities that entice your senses. As a perfume, its floral scent provides a refreshing and subtle fragrance alternative to the more intense perfumes on the market.

Rose Water in Perfumes:

  • Natural Scent: Offers a light, natural fragrance that is often preferred for daily wear.
  • Mood Enhancer: Known to soothe the mind and offer a sensory experience that can lift your spirits.

In cosmetics, rose water serves as a beauty elixir that caters to your skin’s health and your sensory pleasure.

Its application on the skin delivers more than a fresh scent; it includes therapeutic benefits as well.

Rose Water in Cosmetics:

Soothes SkinCalms irritation and reduces redness with anti-inflammatory properties.
HydratesProvides a moisture boost to revitalize skin’s appearance.
Aids in SkincarePrepares your skin for further skincare routine or makeup application.

Remember, in your quest for a beauty regimen that encompasses a sensory experience with functional benefits, rose water emerges as a compelling ingredient.

Its use in perfumes and cosmetics is rooted in history and continues to flourish due to its natural allure and skin-friendly properties.

DIY Rose Water Preparation

Creating rose water at home involves both artistry and a bit of science. Your kitchen can become a space for crafting this fragrant culinary staple through distillation or simpler alternative methods.

A glass bowl filled with fresh rose petals, being distilled in a pot of boiling water on a stovetop

Home Distillation Guidelines

To produce your own steam-distilled rose water, you’ll need fresh or dried rose petals and a distillation apparatus. The apparatus consists of a heating element, a boiling chamber, a condenser, and a collection vessel.

  1. Gather Rose Petals: You’ll need approximately one cup of tightly packed rose petals. Clean them gently to remove any dirt or insects.
  2. Set Up Your Apparatus: Place the rose petals in the boiling chamber. Add enough water to cover the petals, then secure the lid that connects to the condenser.
  3. Distillation Process: Heat the water to a gentle boil. The steam will capture the essence of the rose petals as it rises and then condenses back into a liquid in the cooling chamber, resulting in rose water.

Maintain a steady heat to keep the process consistent; it typically takes about 30 minutes for all the water to evaporate and condense. Be patient during this process to ensure the highest quality rose water.

Alternative Methods

If you don’t have access to a distillation setup, you can use a simpler approach to create rose water.

  • Simmering Technique:
    1. Place petals in a pot and cover with water, using just enough to submerge the petals.
    2. Cover with a lid and simmer on low heat until the petals lose their color.
    3. Strain the mixture, discarding petals, and collect your rose water in a sterilized container.
  • Bowl-in-Pot Method:
    1. Place petals in a large pot and submerge them in distilled water.
    2. Invert a lid on the pot and place ice on top to create a condensation effect.
    3. Place a small bowl inside the pot to collect the condensing rose-infused water.

Tip: Handle your petals with care and choose non-metallic pots to prevent any reaction that might alter the fragrance or purity of your rose water.

Cookbooks and Resources

A table scattered with open cookbooks, spice jars, and a bottle of rose water, surrounded by fresh herbs and colorful ingredients

When you delve into Lebanese cuisine, rose water stands out as an essential ingredient. To further your culinary expertise, consider starting with Maureen Abood’s award-winning cookbook, “Rose Water & Orange Blossoms”. Here, you’ll uncover more than 100 recipes that bring the essence of Lebanese flavors to your kitchen.

For a thorough understanding of Lebanese culinary practices, “Fresh and Classic Lebanese Recipes” by Maureen Abood is a valuable resource.

Abood not only offers recipes but also gives insights into the significance of natural farming in Lebanon and its impact on flavor.

If you’re seeking a diverse array of options, the “11 Best Lebanese Cookbooks” by Foods Guy include recommendations that emphasize the use of rose water in oriental sweets and provide step-by-step guides.

These resources are designed to make Lebanese cuisine accessible to everyone from beginners to seasoned chefs.

The following list includes handpicked cookbooks that will help you harness the floral aroma and sweetness of rose water in your Lebanese dishes:

  • Maureen Abood Market: A treasure trove of Lebanese recipes, such as hummus and tabbouleh.
  • Amazon: A wide selection, from general Lebanese cookbooks to those focused on specific ingredients like rose water.
  • Bakeaholicmama: Highlighting cookbooks that specialize in Lebanese dessert recipes featuring rose water and orange blossom water.


In Lebanese cuisine, your experience with rose water goes beyond just taste—it touches upon tradition and sensory delight. Rose water is not a simple ingredient; it is a cultural symbol woven into many aspects of Lebanese cooking. It’s your key to unlock a wealth of flavor and aroma in numerous dishes.

With its subtle fragrance, rose water enhances both sweet and savory recipes.

You may find it in your traditional desserts like baklava or in refreshing beverages that complement a meal. Its versatility is evident in the ease with which it blends with various ingredients, creating a harmonious balance on your palate.

Here are a few quick facts about rose water in Lebanese cuisine:

  • Cultural significance: Embedded in culinary tradition and used in festive dishes.
  • Sensory experience: Adds a floral aroma that elevates the dining experience.
  • Usage: Found in desserts, drinks, and sometimes savory dishes.
  • Preparation: Often made by distilling rose petals, ensuring a natural essence.

Frequently Asked Questions

A bowl of fragrant rose water sits next to a spread of Lebanese dishes, adding a touch of floral aroma to the air

In this section, you’ll find concise answers to common queries about the use of rose water in Lebanese cuisine, its preparation, and the unique aspects it brings to traditional dishes.

What are some traditional Lebanese dishes that use rose water?

Rose water is a distinctive ingredient in many Lebanese desserts such as baklava, Maamoul (stuffed date cookies), and Aish El-Saraya (bread pudding).

It is also found in beverages like rose water lemonade.

How can I incorporate rose water into my Lebanese cooking?

You can add rose water to desserts for a subtle floral flavor or use it in drinks to create refreshing beverages.

Adding a small amount to certain savory dishes can also introduce a unique dimension to their flavor profile.

What are the benefits of using rose water in Lebanese cuisine?

Rose water adds a floral essence to dishes and brings numerous benefits; it is known for its anti-inflammatory properties.

When used in cooking, it can provide a calming aroma and potentially offer skin health benefits.

Are there any Lebanese desserts that feature rose water?

Yes, Lebanese desserts such as the Lebanese version of baklava, Semolina Coconut Cake, and various cream-filled pastries often feature rose water prominently for its fragrance and flavor.

What is the significance of rose water in Lebanese culinary traditions?

Rose water has a long-standing cultural significance in Lebanese cuisine.

It is used not just for its flavor, but also for its fragrant aroma, which is associated with hospitality and celebrations.

How is rose water prepared for use in Lebanese recipes?

Traditionally, rose water is made by distilling fresh rose petals. This process captures the essence of the petals.

The result is a concentrated and fragrant liquid that is used sparingly in recipes for its potent flavor.

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Cassie brings decades of experience to the Kitchen Community. She is a noted chef and avid gardener. Her new book "Healthy Eating Through the Garden" will be released shortly. When not writing or speaking about food and gardens Cassie can be found puttering around farmer's markets and greenhouses looking for the next great idea.
Cassie Marshall
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