Cherimoya vs Custard Apple

When exploring the world of exotic fruits, you may come across cherimoya and custard apple, two delectable treats that often spark curiosity due to their unique flavors and textures.

Contents show

Both cherimoya and custard apple belong to the Annonaceae family, commonly referred to as the custard apple family, which includes a variety of tropical fruit trees.

Understanding the differences between these two fruits can enhance your culinary experience and help you make better choices for your palate and recipes.

A cherimoya and custard apple sit side by side, their green and yellow skins contrasting against each other. The cherimoya is bumpy and heart-shaped, while the custard apple is smoother and rounder

Cherimoya, with its often heart-shaped form, boasts a skin that is green and somewhat bumpy. Inside, it reveals a white, creamy flesh known for its sweetness and a flavor that combines hints of banana, pineapple, and strawberry.

This fruit typically ranges in size up to that of a grapefruit, but can sometimes reach weights of up to 11 pounds.

On the other hand, custard apple, which may also be called sugar apple or sweetsop, tends to be smaller and exhibits a more textured exterior. It shares the creamy white interior of the cherimoya but is often less sweet and less fragrantly aromatic.

Selecting between cherimoya and custard apple may depend on your taste preferences and the textural experience you are seeking.

Cherimoya is often heralded for its rich, dessert-like quality, making it a favorite for fresh consumption or blended into smoothies, while custard apple, slightly less creamy, is also enjoyed fresh and is commonly used in sweet dishes.

Both fruits provide nutritional benefits and serve as a source of essential vitamins and minerals, contributing to a healthy, diverse diet.

Botanical Classification

When you explore the similarities and differences between cherimoya and custard apple, it’s essential to understand their botanical classification, which illuminates their origins and relationship within the Annonaceae family.

Origin and Cultivation

Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is native to the Andes Mountains in South America. It thrives in the tropical regions of these highlands, where it has been cultivated for centuries. In modern times, cultivation has spread to other regions that can mimic its native habitat’s climate.

The custard apple, known botanically as Annona reticulata, also finds its origins in the tropical regions of the Americas. However, you can find it cultivated in various tropical areas around the world, signifying its adaptability to different tropical climates.

Annonaceae Family

Both cherimoya and custard apple belong to the family Annonaceae, which includes a variety of species known for their edible fruits. This family is characterized by trees and shrubs that are mostly found in tropical regions. Here’s how the two fruits fit within this family:

  • Cherimoya (Annona cherimola): A small deciduous tree that can grow to different heights but usually remains within a manageable size for cultivation.
  • Custard Apple (Annona reticulata): This tree can vary from small to larger sizes, with a rounded canopy and the ability to grow in semi-evergreen conditions.

Both species are cultivated for their sweet fruits and have been integrated well into agricultural practices in suitable climates across the globe.

Physical Characteristics

When you compare cherimoya and custard apple, you’ll find that while they share some similarities, they exhibit distinct physical characteristics in appearance, size and shape, as well as texture and color.



  • Heart-shaped
  • Scaly, green exterior that matures to brown

Custard Apple:

  • Variably shaped, often irregular
  • Smooth with a textured feel

Size and Shape


  • Typically grows to 19 to 32 feet in height

Custard Apple:

  • Larger canopy size with trees reaching upwards of 35 feet
  • Branches extending around 30 feet across

Texture and Color


  • Skin: Bumpy and green
  • Flesh: White, creamy, and custard-like

Custard Apple:

  • Skin: Smoother and more textured compared to cherimoya
  • Flesh: Often grainy but soft, with a tangy flavor

Nutritional Profile

A table with two halves: one cherimoya, one custard apple. Nutritional labels hover above each fruit, displaying their respective profiles

When comparing the nutritional values of cherimoya and custard apple, you’ll find distinct differences in their vitamin and mineral content, calorie and sugar levels, as well as dietary fiber and protein composition.

Vitamins and Minerals

The cherimoya and custard apple both offer a range of essential vitamins and minerals, but there are notable differences.

Custard apple is notably higher in Vitamin C and iron than cherimoya. For Vitamin C, custard apple contains more than cherimoya, making it an excellent choice to support your immune system.

When it comes to minerals, custard apple contains approximately 0.71mg of iron compared to cherimoya’s 0.27mg.

Both fruits contain potassium, essential for regulating blood pressure, and magnesium, important for nerve function and blood glucose control. They are also sources of calcium and manganese, which play roles in bone health and metabolism, respectively.

Caloric and Sugar Content

You’ll find that both fruits are relatively low in calories, making them suitable for a health-conscious diet.

Cherimoya contains 79.39g of water per 100g, which contributes to its lower calorie count, while custard apple also offers a hydrating profile with a water content of 71.5g per 100g.

However, both fruits have a natural sugar content that contributes to their sweet taste. Mindful consumption is advised if you’re monitoring your sugar intake.

Dietary Fiber and Proteins

In terms of dietary fiber, cherimoya has a slight edge, with about 25% more fiber per 100g compared to custard apple. This fiber is essential for digestion and helps maintain a feeling of fullness.

For protein content, neither fruit is particularly high, but they do provide a modest boost to your diet. Protein is essential for tissue repair and muscle maintenance.

Additionally, consumption of the seeds is not recommended as they are not considered edible and can be toxic.

Health Benefits

Exploring the health benefits of cherimoya and custard apple reveals their nutritional impacts on your well-being. These fruits are not only delicious but also come with various health-promoting properties.

Antioxidant Properties

Cherimoya and custard apple are both rich in antioxidants, which help combat oxidative stress in your body. Your consumption of these fruits supports the neutralization of free radicals, potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Digestive and Heart Health

You can improve your digestive health by including these fruits in your diet due to their high dietary fiber content. This can lead to better bowel regularity and may aid in maintaining a healthy digestive system.

Moreover, the fiber and nutrients like potassium in custard apple and cherimoya contribute to heart health by managing blood pressure and potentially reducing bad cholesterol levels.

Anti-inflammatory Effects

Incorporating cherimoya and custard apple into your diet can have anti-inflammatory effects. These fruits contain compounds that may reduce inflammation in your body, offering a protective effect against certain conditions where inflammation is a key factor.

Vision and Immunity Support

Your eye health benefits from the vitamin C and beta-carotene found in these fruits, which are essential for maintaining good vision. Vitamin C is also crucial for supporting your immune system, providing a boost to your body’s natural defenses.

Culinary Uses

Cherimoya and custard apple are both renowned for their unique flavors and textures, making them versatile fruits in the culinary world. Your experience with these fruits will be defined by their creamy texture and custard-like sweetness.

Consumption and Storage

To enjoy the best flavor and texture of cherimoya and custard apple, consume them at room temperature.

Cherimoya should be eaten when slightly soft to the touch, similar to a ripe avocado. Store them at room temperature until they reach this stage. Afterward, if not consumed immediately, you can refrigerate them to halt the ripening process.

Custard apples are often used in the same way, but remember that their shelf life is shorter, so plan to use them soon after purchase.

Culinary Varieties

You’ll find that cherimoya has a vanilla and banana-like aroma with a sweet, somewhat acidic taste, enhancing its use in diverse recipes.

Their creamy texture makes them ideal for smooth, custard-like desserts.

On the other hand, custard apples, while still sweet and creamy, tend to have a less pronounced flavor which pairs well with other ingredients in desserts and smoothies.

Desserts and Recipes

Both fruits can be used in a variety of desserts due to their sweetness and creamy texture. Here are a few ideas to incorporate them into your dessert recipes:

  • Smoothies: Blend the flesh of either fruit with ingredients like yogurt or milk to create a smooth, creamy drink.
  • Ice Creams: Puree cherimoya or custard apple and mix it with a custard base for a tropical-flavored ice cream.
  • Custard: Use the flesh in place of other fruits in custard recipes for a natural sweetness and custard-like flavor.

Remember, regardless of how you choose to enjoy these fruits, their inherent sweetness and creaminess are sure to enhance your culinary creations.

Market Availability and Usage

A bustling market with cherimoyas and custard apples displayed on vibrant stalls, with customers sampling and purchasing the fruits

The cherimoya and custard apple are two distinctive tropical fruits that you may encounter, each with its particular availability and culinary uses influenced by regional preferences.

Comparative Availability


  • Season: Usually available from late winter through early summer.
  • Regions: Primarily found in markets of South America, Central America, and parts of California.

Custard Apple

  • Season: Available from spring to late fall, depending on the region.
  • Regions: More widely found than cherimoya, especially in South Asia and parts of Africa.

In your local supermarket, you may notice variations in availability largely due to the difference in growing seasons and regional production.

While both fruits are considered tropical, the cherimoya typically has a more limited seasonal availability.

Global Preferences and Uses

Culinary Uses of Cherimoya:

  • Compared to custard apples, cherimoyas are often eaten fresh or blended into smoothies.
  • In terms of flavor, cherimoya is likened to a mix of pineapple and banana.

Culinary Uses of Custard Apple:

  • Also known as sweetsop or sugar apple, is versatile in desserts and sweets.
  • Similar to cherimoya in taste, but often used in more sugary treats.

Both fruits share similarities in use, as tropical regions favor them for their sweetness and creamy texture. However, you might find that global preferences for these fruits vary, with cherimoya being more popular in the Americas and custard apples commonly featured in Asian and African cuisines.

Comparison with Other Fruits

In the world of tropical fruits, cherimoya and custard apple often draw comparisons for their delectable flavors and unique textures. As you explore these fruits, you’ll notice how they resemble and differ from other exotic and common varieties in your local market.

Similarities to Other Tropical Fruits

  • Sugar Apple (Sweetsop): Cherimoya and sugar apple are similar in flavor and texture. Both fruits have creamy flesh and a sweet taste that’s often likened to a blend of banana, pineapple, and other tropical fruits. They are part of the same Annonaceae family, making them relatives with resemblances in nutrition, offering Vitamin C and antioxidants that help fight free radicals.
  • Nutrient Content: Nutrient Cherimoya Custard Apple Banana Pineapple Vitamin A Moderate Moderate Low Low Vitamin C High High Medium High Potassium High High Very High Moderate Sugar High High High High

Differences from Common Varieties

  • Size: Both cherimoya and custard apple are generally larger than most common fruits like bananas or pineapples. Their sizes vary with the variety, but cherimoya typically appears slightly larger.
  • Taste and Texture: While bananas and pineapples have a more fibrous texture, cherimoyas and custard apples are known for their creamy, custard-like flesh. The taste of cherimoya is often described as a mixture of pear, banana, and lemon zest, differing from the straightforward sweetness of a banana or the tartness of pineapple.
  • Health Benefits: The Vitamin A and Vitamin C content in cherimoya and custard apple are key players in preventing cancer due to their antioxidant properties. Potassium in these tropical fruits supports heart health and offsets the higher sugar content compared to bananas and pineapples, which are more commonly consumed for their quick energy supply.

Agronomy and Environmental Factors

Lush orchard with cherimoya and custard apple trees under a clear sky with gentle breezes. Rich soil and ample sunlight promote healthy growth

When cultivating cherimoya and custard apples, understanding the specific agronomy practices and environmental factors is pivotal for optimal growth and fruit production.

Cultivation Techniques

For cherimoya, your cultivation starts with selecting proper grafting materials, as seed-grown trees are less consistent in fruit quality. You should graft onto rootstocks that are well-suited to your local conditions.

Custard apples are less demanding in terms of cultivation and can be grown from seeds, but grafted or budded plants generally perform better. Be mindful that both fruits require hand pollination for reliable fruit set, as natural pollinators are often absent outside their native range.

Climate and Soil Requirements

These fruits demand specific climate and soil conditions.

Cherimoya thrives in mild areas of the tropics or subtropics, similar to its native Andes; it prefers altitudes between 700 and 2,400 meters. Your soil must be well-drained with a pH between 6.5 and 7.6.

Custard apples, on the other hand, are more widespread and can be found throughout the West Indies and regions of Colombia. They flourish in warmer, tropical climates and are less elevation-dependent, tolerating a wider range of soil types but also requiring good drainage.

Challenges and Pests

Both fruits face challenges in cultivation.

For cherimoya, watch out for root rot and fungal diseases which can affect trees, especially in poorly drained soils. Meanwhile, pests like fruit flies, mealybugs, and scale insects can also infest the trees.

Custard apples, on the other hand, are susceptible to pests like thrips, beetle borers, and fruit-spotting bugs. Additionally, you should also watch for root rot and fungal diseases in poorly drained soils.

Economic Significance

A cherimoya and a custard apple sit side by side on a market table, surrounded by various fruits. A price tag indicates their economic significance

When exploring the economic landscape of cherimoya and custard apple, you’ll find that these tropical fruits carry significant commercial value and influence local and global markets in various ways.

Trade and Commercial Value

Cherimoya and custard apple, both alluring in their creamy texture and unique flavor, contribute notably to the tropical fruit market. While somewhat lesser-known than staples like the banana, their trade packs a punch.

Cherimoya tends to fetch higher prices, partly due to its shorter shelf life, which demands rapid transport and turnover. Custard apple, with its slightly tougher skin, grants a bit more leeway in handling and storage.

  • Cherimoya: Higher prices due to logistics and shelf life.
  • Custard Apple: More affordable, less demanding in transport.

As a consumer, your demand for these fruits encourages investment in regions where they thrive. Their presence on the market is not as ubiquitous as other tropical fruits, making their availability a distinctive advantage for retailers and a fresh discovery for you.

Impact on Local and Global Markets

Your appetite for diverse fruit profiles significantly impacts local farming communities, especially where cherimoya and custard apple serve as economic mainstays. These fruits support local economies, with farmers specializing in their cultivation due to the soils rich in calcium and manganese, essential for producing quality yields.

Furthermore, as an informed buyer, your concern for nutrients like folate and fructose influences market trends.

  • Nutritional Demand: High in folate, sugars like fructose, and low in sodium.
  • Global Trade Influence: Your preferences sway import/export dynamics.

In regions where these fruits are cultivated, an emphasis on production can lead to an increased vision for improved agricultural techniques, ensuring these fruits’ sustained availability and quality on the world stage.

Consumer Information

When selecting cherimoya and custard apple at the market, your focus should be on the fruit’s appearance and firmness to ensure quality and freshness. Knowledge on proper handling and storage is also essential to maintain their delicate flavors and textures.

Selection and Buying Tips

  • Cherimoya: Look for fruit with greenish-brown, smooth skin. They should be firm with a slight give when pressed gently. Avoid ones with surface blemishes or black spots.
  • Custard Apple: Choose fruits with an olive-green color and a thick, bumpy skin. They should also have a slight softness upon gentle pressure, indicating ripeness.

When buying either fruit, heavy for size indicates more water content, which often means juicier flesh. Both fruits have white flesh inside, which should be creamy in cherimoya and slightly granulated in custard apples. Be mindful that the black seeds inside cherimoya and the brown seeds in custard apple are inedible.

Handling and Storage

  • Handle both fruits with care to prevent bruising.
  • If not ripe, you can leave them at room temperature to ripen.
  • When cherimoya and custard apple are ripe, they can be refrigerated to slow down the ripening process.
  • Consume them within a couple of days to enjoy their optimal flavor.
  • The ideal storage is in a fruit basket away from direct sunlight or in the fridge in a produce drawer.

The white flesh of both fruits is predominantly consumed fresh, often enjoyed as a snack or in desserts.

For the best experience, consume them when they are just ripe to appreciate the unique characteristics and pear-like texture of these exotic fruits.

Scientific Research and Studies

A lab table holds two ripe cherimoyas and two custard apples, surrounded by scientific equipment and research papers

Scientific research distinguishes cherimoya and custard apple through investigations focusing on their nutritional content and medicinal properties.

Your comprehension of these fruits is enhanced by understanding the specifics of ongoing studies and the health benefits they may offer.

Ongoing Investigations

Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) and custard apple (Annona reticulata), although similar, are subjects of distinct studies.

Current research revolves around identifying bioactive compounds responsible for their health-promoting properties.

Investigations aim to isolate and quantify compounds like phenolic acids, flavonoids, and procyanidins known for their antioxidant effects.

  • You may find studies that:
  • Analyze the antioxidant capacity of the fruits’ by-products, such as seeds and peel, to gauge their potential in preventing oxidative stress.
  • Assess the impact of these fruits on digestive health, considering their dietary fiber content.

Nutritional and Medicinal Research

Research into nutritional and medicinal aspects of cherimoya and custard apple is extensive, building a profile of their potential health benefits.

Nutritional Profile:

  • Cherimoya – Rich in vitamins B1, B2, and B3, potassium, and dietary fiber.
  • Custard Apple – Contains a valuable blend of minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants.

*You’ll discover that:

  • Detailed analyses seek to understand how the vitamin and mineral composition contributes to overall health benefits.
  • The significance of potassium in supporting heart health is often a focus, alongside the importance of fiber in promoting digestive wellness.

Researchers are actively decoding how the regular consumption of these fruits could combat conditions caused by oxidative stress, and what role their nutrients have in supporting long-term health.

Ethical and Sustainability Considerations

A cherimoya and custard apple sit side by side, with the cherimoya labeled "ethical" and the custard apple labeled "sustainable." The fruits are surrounded by lush green leaves and a clear blue sky

When selecting tropical fruits like cherimoya and custard apple, your awareness of their cultivation impact and the sustainability of growing practices is key.

Both fruits are from tropical regions where environmental factors can significantly influence cultivation methods.

Cultivation Impact

Cherimoya and custard apple are extensively cultivated in various tropical regions. Tropical fruit production can have several implications:

  • Soil Erosion: Cultivation techniques may lead to soil degradation if not managed properly.
  • Water Use: These fruits require ample water, potentially straining local resources.
  • Biodiversity: Monoculture practices can reduce local biodiversity, which is vital for a healthy ecosystem.

Sustainable Practices

To ensure the sustainability of cherimoya and custard apple, consider these practices:

Crop Rotation and Polyculture:

  • Encourages biodiversity
  • Minimizes pests and disease spread

Water Management:

  • Utilize drip irrigation to reduce water usage
  • Harvest rainwater when possible

Organic Cultivation:

  • Pesticides: Avoiding synthetic chemicals protects local fauna.
  • Fertilizers: Use of organic matter enhances soil without harsh chemicals.

Future Outlook

A lush orchard with cherimoya and custard apple trees in full bloom, their unique fruits hanging from the branches, promising a bountiful future harvest

As you look to the future of cherimoya and custard apple, you’ll find that trends and cultivation innovations, along with their expansion into new markets, have significant roles to play.

Your understanding of these elements is crucial for grasping the potential growth and changes in their consumption and agricultural practices.

Trends and Innovations

Cultivation techniques are evolving to enhance the availability of both cherimoya and custard apple.

With the rise of organic farming and sustainable agricultural practices, you can expect to see more environmentally friendly options.

Innovations in genetic crop improvements may lead to varieties with increased dietary fiber and nutrients such as vitamin B6 and magnesium, aligning with the nutritional trends that prioritize health benefits.

On the culinary front, there’s a growing sweetness preference in fruits.

Researchers are developing new cultivars with a focus on enhancing the natural sweetness of cherimoya and custard apple.

Their unique flavors may lead to their inclusion in a wider range of culinary uses, from traditional desserts to modern gastronomic creations.

Potential for New Markets

The expansion of cherimoya and custard apple into new markets is feasible due to their nutritional value and the increasing interest in exotic fruits.

  • Dietary Fiber: Both fruits are sources of dietary fiber, catering to health-conscious consumers.
  • Nutrition: Rich in vitamin B6 and magnesium, they are poised to be marketed as nutritious options in supplement and health food sectors.
  • Cultivation: With advancements in cultivation methods, there is potential for these fruits to be grown in non-traditional regions, increasing their availability.

By focusing on strategic marketing and education about the fruits’ benefits, producers can create demand and facilitate their entrance into markets where they’re currently underrepresented.

Personal Experiences and Reviews

Exploring the subtleties that distinguish cherimoya from custard apple can be illuminating, particularly when examining first-hand accounts and community insights.

Personal narratives often highlight the sweet, creamy flavors that are characteristic of these fruits, especially within the context of their culinary use, such as in smoothies.


Cherimoya (Annona cherimola):

  • Taste: You may find the cherimoya to be remarkably sweet with a creamy texture that lends itself well to dessert recipes.
  • Use in Smoothies: Its smooth blendability is frequently praised in smoothie recipes, enhancing the drink’s richness.

Custard Apple:

  • Flavor Profile: You might notice that custard apple, while sweet, has a slightly grainier texture but still offers a desirable flavor.
  • Culinary Versatility: It is often enjoyed as a snack or used in traditional dishes, where its unique flavor can be appreciated.

Community Discussions

  • Annonaceae Family Knowledge Sharing: In forums, you’ll find that the richer knowledge base tends to come from those familiar with the annona genus, who can help identify the nuanced flavor differences.
  • Narrative Sharing: Personal stories of using Annona cherimola in homemade dishes or anecdotes of the first taste of custard apple may inspire your fruit exploration.

Home Gardening Tips

Lush garden with cherimoya and custard apple trees, labeled pots, and gardening tools. Sunshine and blue sky in the background

Cherimoya and custard apple trees can provide a delectable harvest for home gardeners willing to provide the necessary care.

Understanding the specifics of growth requirements and maintenance will ensure your success in cultivating these unique fruits.

Grow-Your-Own Guides

Starting with Seeds:

  • Cherimoya: For germination, extract seeds from ripe cherimoya fruit and plant them in well-draining soil. Germination takes one to two months. It’s vital to keep the soil consistently moist during this period.
  • Custard Apple: Similarly, seeds should be planted in a fertile potting mix, with germination expected in 18 to 30 days. Custard apple seeds require warm conditions to sprout effectively.

Choosing the Right Location:

  • Both cherimoya and custard apple trees thrive in well-drained soil with plenty of sunlight.
  • Protect young trees from extreme weather conditions by positioning them in a sheltered spot in your garden.

Care and Maintenance

Watering Regimen:

  • Cherimoya trees need to be watered deeply every other week during the growing season. Reduce frequency once dormant.
  • Use a soaker hose or drip irrigation for deep watering, which encourages deep root growth.
  • Custard apples enjoy a similar watering schedule, with adjustments made for rainfall and temperature.

Fertilization Plan:

  • Balanced fertilizer (e.g. 8-8-8) should be applied to cherimoya trees in midwinter and then every three months.
  • As trees mature and bear fruit, they require increased nutrients.
  • Custard apple trees will benefit from fertilizer with a higher phosphorus content to support flowering and fruiting.

Pruning Practices:

  • Prune to remove dead or diseased wood and to shape the tree.
  • Strong branching is necessary to support the weight of the fruit for both types of trees.

Culinary Uses and Nutrition:

  • Once harvested, the fruits can be enjoyed fresh or used in a variety of culinary creations.
  • Both fruits are packed with vitamins and minerals, adding nutritional value to your homegrown produce.

Frequently Asked Questions

In this section, you’ll find answers to common questions about cherimoya and custard apple, detailing taste, health benefits, nutritional content, edible parts, and specific characteristics.

What are the taste differences between cherimoya and custard apple?

Cherimoya has a creamy texture and a sweet, tropical flavor reminiscent of banana, pineapple, and pear.

Custard apple, on the other hand, is sweet with a slightly grainier texture and a taste that can be described as a blend of apple and pear.

What are the health benefits of eating cherimoya compared to custard apple?

Cherimoya is rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals such as vitamin C and potassium.

Custard apple also boasts health benefits, including vitamin A which is essential for vision and skin health, though cherimoya generally has a higher content of vitamin C.

Can you compare the nutritional differences between cherimoya and custard apple?

Nutritionally, cherimoya and custard apple are both low in fat and high in carbohydrates.

Cherimoya contains more dietary fiber and higher amounts of certain minerals like phosphorus.

Custard apple offers a comparable nutrient profile, but with slightly less fiber and mineral content.

Are there any edible parts of cherimoya and custard apple that differ?

Both cherimoya and custard apple have edible flesh inside their skin, but the seeds of both fruits are not edible. The skin of both fruits is also generally considered inedible.

How does cherimoya differ from soursop in terms of flavor and texture?

Though not originally asked about soursop, it’s worth noting that cherimoya and soursop belong to the same family.

Cherimoya has a smoother, creamier texture with a sweeter flavor compared to soursop, which has a more fibrous texture and a flavor that is both sweet and tangy.

What is cherimoya commonly known as in the United States?

In the United States, cherimoya is also commonly referred to as custard apple. However, it should not be confused with the actual custard apple fruit, which is a separate species.

Follow Us
Cassie brings decades of experience to the Kitchen Community. She is a noted chef and avid gardener. Her new book "Healthy Eating Through the Garden" will be released shortly. When not writing or speaking about food and gardens Cassie can be found puttering around farmer's markets and greenhouses looking for the next great idea.
Cassie Marshall
Follow Us
Latest posts by Cassie Marshall (see all)